Sub-Saharan African Societies: Axum, Meroe, the Niger River region, and Bantu Migrations.

We’re going to do some experimental work today, guys, so be prepared to be patient if the technology we’re using gives us fits– it’s always worth playing around with new ways of collaborating and sharing information, even if there are some hiccups.  Here’s what’s going to happen:

  1. You’re going to be divided up into groups, each of which will be responsible for researching the history of one region of African history during the period 600 BCE to 600 CE.
  2. You will use all available resources (textbooks, JSTOR, Google Scholar, etc.) to generate a detailed, annotated, interactive, and ACCURATE digital timeline of your region during the period 600 BCE to 600 CE.  You will be working on this timeline not only with the people in your group, but with ALL of the groups in ALL of my classes.  Your timeline should include information on the political, economic, religious, social, intellectual, and artistic (PERSIA) history of your region.  You will CITE your sources that you use.
  3. You will find additional media (Flickr or other Creative Commons images, YouTube or Vimeo videos, Soundcloud audio, Google maps, etc.) to support your information.  You will correctly attribute this media in the Google spreadsheet template.
  4. You will use the shared Google spreadsheet link I have emailed to you in order to add your information to the template.  The template will automatically update.  DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING THAT IS DISPLAYED IN RED.
  5. Make sure to read over the material other groups have generated before you add anything new! You don’t want to repeat information.

In order to access the Google template, please check the email address you provided me at the beginning of the semester.  I should have shared the appropriate link with each of you.  (Really, only one person in each group needs to enter the information you generate as you work, so only one person will need to access this link.)  If you need to, you can use the emailed link to access the template at home and add more information after class.

IMPORTANT NOTE: When entering BCE dates, please indicate them in the spreadsheet by adding a minus sign before each.  (Thus, 600 BCE becomes -600, and 555 CE is simply 555.)

Here are the timelines for each region.  Remember, they’re automatically updated, so as soon as you type anything into the spreadsheet, it will show up online:

Your homework tonight will be to examine each of the above timelines, and to comment on this post with (a) the most interesting thing you learned from each timeline, and (b) one good observation about sub-Saharan culture or history between the years 600 BCE and 600 CE.

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54 thoughts on “Sub-Saharan African Societies: Axum, Meroe, the Niger River region, and Bantu Migrations.

  1. Axum: I didn’t know that Christianity was the national religion and that the artistic developments were inspired by the new religion.

    Meroe: I didn’t know that Meroe was such a booming trade town. It must have been an important town.

    Niger River: Its’ interesting that many of the settlements in this region were lacking centralized government; I wondered how they maintained social order?

    Bantu Migrations: It’s interesting how the Bantu had over 500 different languages; How were they able to communicate with each other?

    Africa’s pottery looks very elaborate and has craftsmanship. Their high quality must have made them very useful.

    Like

  2. Axum: first African kingdom to mint money
    Meroe: If one was unfit to be king, they had to kill them self
    Niger River: iron smelters were feared and admired for their smelting skills
    Bantu Migrations: believed in ghosts and that there were only 3 generations of ghosts
    Observation: Each sub-Saharan region studied today had a language and kept written records which is why we know a lot of information on the areas. Also, all regions seemed to have traded extensively with many areas that could only be accessed by waterways.

    Like

  3. Axum: First African Kingdom to print money
    Meroe: If king was unfit to rule, he must commit suicide
    Niger River: There were no urban centers; it was more of a trade hub
    Bantu Migrations: African Kuba Masks
    Observation: Trade and art seem to have been a large part of the sub-Saharan classical era.

    Like

  4. Axum: The Axum built one of the largest steles ever attempted by humans.

    Meroe: Used Giant Cisterns which are 20 feet deep to catch rain water.

    Bantu Migrations: The Bantu people were able to migrate from the Niger river to South Africa in over 1000 years.

    Niger River: Iron smelting was an early and popular occupation. Iron workers were admired and feared.

    Observation: Each region has its own unique innovation and specialized area. For example, the Niger River has Iron smelting, and the Meroe had Giant Cisterns.

    Like

  5. Axum- First African Kingdom to print coins under the rule of the King Endubis.
    Meroe- Must have been very popular and important because it was the center of all trade and goods.
    Niger River Region- Iron smelting was the earliest and most popular occupation, smiths who did this were both feared and admired.
    Bantu Migrations- The Bantu had many languages and as they traveled, they spreaded their languages.
    Observation- I noticed art such as pottery and coins seemed to be part of each region.

    Like

  6. Axum / Aksum – The religious conversion of a large number of the population circa 320 CE had ripple effects through the rest of the civilizations existence

    Meroe – The language of Merotic died with it’s people, and is no longer known. It has yet to be translated by linguists.

    Niger River – Were very advanced, and skilled in crafting. Pottery and smelting were prominent skills.

    Bantu Migrations – The Bantu people trickled down throughout the continent of Africa and spread out to a point where their cultures diverged and made many different tribes and civilizations.

    Observation – Prior to the intrusion of European invaders, African civilizations were culturally diverse while still being roughly on par with eachother.

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  7. Axum: I thought it was interesting that an obelisk was built for the new religion.
    Meroe: The giant cisterns are interesting because I thought that the dirt and dust would absorb the water.
    Niger River: The fact that they worship ancestors appealed to me because I thought it was an Asian unique thing.
    Bantu: I am amazed that the Bantu had over 50 different languages and one of them is still popular today.
    Observation: I find it interesting that the societies are all intertwined together. The Axum conquered the Kush Empire which was part of the Meroe society, both the Niger River and Bantu had iron, and so on.

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  8. Axum: It surprised me that the Negusa Nagast was believed to be the descendant of Solomon and David considering their political geography.

    Meroë: They too used pyramids as burial places although not making them as grand as Egypt’s

    Niger River: The civilizations along the Niger river used Terra Cotta in art and also managed to skip bronze entirely and advance straight to iron!

    Bantu Migrations:They managed to spread bananas and plantains to Africa and essentially created a year-round food source.

    Observation: All of the civilizations were involved in at least some form of trade while most had contact with the Bantu whom brought the material to new parts of Africa.

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  9. Axum: It supersized me that they had the first printed money with a king depicted on it.
    Meroe: I found it strange that if a priest thought a king was unfit to rule the priest would write him a letter him so and he would have to kill himself.
    Niger River: The fact that they formed their own caste system where work was pasted on through family and you couldn’t marry outside of your caste.
    Bantu: That hey had a belief in ghost and that those ghost only went on for three generations.
    Observation: Each group had their own culture that varied greatly, each group was different and prosperous in their own time and in unique ways.

    Like

  10. Axum: were the first to print money
    Meroe: kings had to kill themselves if they were unfit to rule
    Niger River: iron smelting was very, very popular
    Bantu: they knew lots of different languages
    Observation: Pottery seemed to be something that was important in all of the civilizations.

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  11. Auxum- I did not know they were the first kingdom to print coins under the rule of King Endubis. Also, their architecture seemed to be very elaborate.

    Meroe- Built pyramids similar to those constructed by the Egyptians except for the fact that they were smaller. The pyramids functioned as tombs.

    Niger River Region- The fact that they did not need centralization, hierarchy, government, or written language was stated in the timeline surprised me.

    Bantu Migration- Being monotheistic interested me because at the time most civilizations were polytheistic.

    Observation- I notice that all civilizations had some type of burial practices and ancestor worshiping. They all believed in ghosts, but the time they stayed around humans varied between civilizations.

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  12. Axum: I didn’t know that Christianity was a national religion when King Ezana II came into power.
    Meroe: I didn’t know that Meroe was a major trading center for both Roman and Egyptian empires. I only thought they traded with the Egyptians.
    Niger River: It’s surprising that the city Jenne-Jeno didn’t really have a state structure in development, yet it was a highly specialized economic settlement.
    Bantu Migration: I didn’t know that Bantu had a wide variety of languages and also that Swahili, is one of those languages.
    Observation: In the Sub-Saharan region, you can tell that burials and death were very important. All regions had some form of mourning over death and different forms of burial as well.

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  13. Axum – Axum developed a Semitic language called Ga’ez.
    Meroe – Much like the Indus River Valley people we are unable to decipher their text.
    Niger River – Had a social hierarchy similar to that of the caste system, in which you marry in your class.
    Bantu Migrations – The Bantu were a polytheistic group.
    Observation – These African groups were all politically organized and culturally diverse groups, it is a shame that Europeans came in and split up such a culturally rich region.

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  14. Axum: I found it interesting that they had printed metal coins to use in trade as currency.

    Meroe: I though it was interesting how they created the cisterns to collect and save rainwater. very resourceful!

    Niger River: The use of the burial urns to keep their ancestors close to them kinda cool after learning that other civilizations in a different part of the world were doing something very similar, but they had no connection to each other.

    Bantu: I thought it was interesting that they had herds of animals with them when they were migrating but once they settled down somewhere they switched to agriculture because they didn’t need to follow the animals for food anymore.

    Observation: They were all more connected with one another than i had originally thought, each group had trade with groups other than themselves leading to an interconnectedness within the regions.

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  15. Axum: I found it interesting on how Christianity became an important national religion in Africa.
    Meroe: I thought it was really resourceful of the Meroe to use giant cisterns to collect rain water.
    Niger: I found it as a very interesting fun-fact on how burial urns were found near homes, and that they contained skeletons of people in them.
    Bantu: There are 500 African languages in Africa; even if Swahili is the main language and a good amount of Africans can communicate with each other, how will people communicate with one another if they confront someone with a different language?
    Observation: I noticed that all the regions had some sort of art, but not all of there main artistic features were related except for the Axum and Meroe.

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  16. Axum- Had large stone buildings called stelae that could be up to 33 meters high
    Meroe- Had writing that was similar to the Egyptians and had a system for collecting rain water
    Bantu- I did not know that the Bantu had so many languages and that they believed in spirits and ghost.
    Niger River- They did not have a hierarchy and they buried their dead close to them
    Observation- All of the groups had people living in close proximity to each other and had monuments. They also had special burial practices

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  17. Axum: Christianity was extremely important to their development and culture.
    Meroe: Trade seems was very important to Meroe society.
    Niger River Region: Their caste system was extremely influential in how they lived their everyday life (Ex. who they could marry, what job they could do, etc.)
    Bantu Migrations: They believed that people lived as ghosts after death.
    Observation: All of these cultures seemed to rely heavily on their natural resources in order to survive and thrive. Additionally, their natural resources seemed to be a big factor in how they organized their society. (ex. Iron in The Niger River region)

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  18. Axum: Around 270 CE, they were the first kingdom to print gold coins under the rule of King Endubis
    Meroe: The selection of kings caught my eye. The power of selection was in the hands of high priests, and if the king was unfit his life would come to an end. I wonder how much deaths has resulted from this selection.
    Niger River: Jenne-Jeno had no social hierarchy even though it was urbanized.
    Bantu Migration: New languages emerged by interactions during the Bantu migration and the Bantu people believed in life after death.

    All of these civilization had access to trade. Therefore, they were able to inherit useful inventions, such as the pottery wheel. It is interesting that there is no ancient written textual evidence from the Bantu people even though Bantu consist of over 500 African languages.

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  19. Axum- I found the fact that they developed Christianity several decades earlier then the Roman Empire very interesting.
    Meroe- I found the fact that if a priest deemed a king unfit to rule then the king had to commit suicide interesting.
    Niger River Region- The fact that Jenne-Jeno had no state structure, even though at one point there were roughly 40,000 people living their was very intriguing to me.
    Bantu Migration- The fact that they believed in one supreme God was very interesting because most early civilizations were polytheistic.
    Observation- My observation was that all of these cultures had some form of trade and art.

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  20. Axum: It was interesting to see that the Axum developed terracing agriculture similar to that of the Incas

    Meroe: The written language of people in Meroe is similar to that of the people of the IRV in the sense that we have yet found a way to understand it

    Niger River Valley: Showed signs of ancestor worship by keeping burial urns holding skeletons close to their homes

    Bantu Migrations: Very interesting that Bantu consists of 500 African languages and that 90 million people speak it

    Observation: A lot of the aspects of everyday life in Sub-Saharan Africa are very similar to those of societies in Asia and the Americans

    Like

  21. Axum- They were the first African kingdom to print coins under King Endubis.
    Meroe- This society was a major trade hub because it was crossroads of multiple trade. This society must have been wealthy because of the trade.
    Niger River- I did not know that children could only marry within their group or caste. This indicates a very specific caste system.
    Bantu Migrations- They had around 500 different African languages. This probably means that the population wasn’t in one big area rather in smaller compounds due to the language barrier.
    Observation- I’ve noticed that there is a lot of trade associated with each of these societies. It was interesting seeing how some of these societies clashed like the Axum and the Meroe.

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  22. Axum: It was interesting to me how King Ezana ll was the first monarch to adopt Christianity.
    Meroe: It was interesting to me how the priests decided who became king and for how long.
    Niger River Region: I found it weird that there was no social hierarchy but children could only marry within their caste/group.
    Bantu: It was interesting to me that the art found was influenced by different cultures.
    Observations: In each region burials were important. Each region had different burial forms. It also seemed like art and pottery was very important to them.

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  23. Axum: Social hierarchy coincided with religious beliefs
    Meroe: Elaborate trade systems that serviced Pharaohs and Emperors
    Bantu: Monotheistic beliefs as well as spiritual ghosts that lived with them
    Niger River:Cities were groups of specialized settlements around a major hub
    Observation: Many trade systems were working at once which meant there had to be interactions between regions.

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  24. Axum- Ezana was the king of the Niger and he changed the religion of the Axum to Christianity and he minted his face on money.

    Meroe- Initially used the Egyptian’s heiroglyphs as a system of writing. They then developed their own.

    Niger- I found it interesting that the people of the Niger had advanced technology and no government.

    Bantu- I find it interesting that over 90 million people speak Bantu languages.

    Observation- I found it interesting how each group was so different within themselves ( such as the 500 million different Bantu languages) yet they traded with other civilizations outside the region.

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  25. Axum: One interesting thing about Axum is that, the Axum developed their own language called Ge’ez.
    Meroe: The Meroe started using their own language called Merotic, and the Meroe used hieroglyphs.
    Niger River: I found it interesting that the Niger River didn’t have a hierarchy, and a centralized government they instead had small kinship groups.
    Bantu: The Bantu created plantains, which was their main supply of food for the whole year.
    Observation: All of these Sub-Saharan cultures: Axum, Meroe, Niger River, and the Bantu had some unique form of artistic production from stelaes from the Axum to African Kuba masks from the Bantu.

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  26. Axum: Practiced Christianity before the Romans and they have it as the official language.
    Meroe: They developed writing like the Egyptians, however we can not decipher it.
    Niger: Traded by boats along the Niger River with other groups of people.
    Bantu: They have hundreds of different languages with a large population that speaks them.

    Observation: Art was a major contribution to the civilizations. They all either had pottery, masks, or paintings that they completed.

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  27. Axum: I found it interesting that the Axum culture developed metal coins.
    Meroe: It was interesting that the Meroe people thought to store rain water In giant containers.
    Niger River valley: It was interesting to find out that they used hollowed out logs for boats
    Bantu: It is impressive that the Bantu people speak over Five hundred languages around their culture.
    All of these cultures had Religious and non religious art that was all very similar in their patterns and designs which shows that they likely had interaction with each other.

    Like

  28. Axem: First African kingdom to produce coins.
    Meroe: Priests decided who was going to be king.
    Niger River: People used canoe like boats called pirogues to move up and down the river.
    Bantu: Thie language consist of 500 African languages.
    Observation: They all made some from of art, they all had something like a social structure, and they all traded.

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  29. Axum: I found the large stelae gravestones for kings interesting.
    Bantu: I didn’t realize desertification was a pressing issue back then, so it was intriguing to learn that Bantu had to migrate because of it.
    Niger River Valley: Their pirogues (boats) similar to canoes seemed unique.
    Meroe: It was good to learn that they were one of the groups who built pyramids, especially since the other 3 didn’t.
    Observation: It was cool to me that all four groups had developed iron smelting on their own. I would’ve thought only two may have developed it.

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  30. Axum: The most interesting thing I found out was that political leaders has 3-4 meters monoliths that were made as tombs and graves.
    Meroe: Giant cisterns were used to collect water when it rained because of the arid conditions. Also kings were buried in pyramids which is interesting as well.
    Niger River: Iron smelting was considered a prestigious job therefore the iron workers were feared and admired at the same time.
    Bantu migrations: African Kuba masks are used to communicate between past and present humans and nature.
    All regions have various types of artistic production. Such as cave paintings, pottery, masks, elaborate burial services, and etc.

    Like

  31. Axum- I’m fascinated that they were able to build the Stelae 33 meters tall without modern day technology.
    Meroe- I found it interesting that the Meroe replaced the hieroglyphs with their own language.
    Niger River- The fact that there were no Major settlements but small villages and kinships reminds me more of what the media portrays Sub-saharan Africa of being like.
    Bantu Migration- I find the use of the Kuba masks interesting in that they were used as communication between present and the past.
    Most of all the Sub-saharan groups seemed to have art and pottery deeply embedded within their culture. They all seem to share similar artistic development in pottery, paintings, etc.

    Like

  32. Axum: First Kingdom in Africa to print coins.
    Meroe: Major center for trade in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Niger River: Did not need hierarchy, centralization, government or a written language and still survived.
    Bantu: Consists of about 500 languages.
    Observation: They all had visual representations of how they felt, either being pottery or religious monuments or paintings.

    Like

  33. Axum: I didn’t know that they were the ones to create currency through coins in Africa. I think its interesting to know where coins as currency in Africa came from.
    Meroe: They used 20 foot deep and 800 foot wide cisterns to collect rain water to use. I find this interesting because they were able to build such large contraptions to put to use.
    Niger River Region:There were 3 foot long burial urns that were near or in homes. This shows that they had strong religious beliefs about an after life.
    Bantu Migration: The Bantu believed that there was an afterlife and that ghosts were real and would follow them around. What i find interesting though is that the ghosts that were there would only be, at the most, three generations old.
    Observation: There is a lot about early African culture that I did not know. There are also a lot of things that I didn’t know that i find extremely interesting. Also, all of these cultures somehow intertwin and are similar in some way.

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  34. Axum: I thought it was interesting how they were the first African kingdom to make there own coins.
    Meroe: It was interesting how the Meroe used giant containers to collect rain water.
    Niger River Region:It was cool how they used long canoes to move up and down the river to do trade with neighboring civilizations.
    Bantu: It was interesting how the Bantu used 500 different languages and how 90 million of the bantu who can speak some of them.
    The Sub-Saharan African culture were very innovated, and it is impressive how they used all these different techniques to survive in such a harsh environment.

    Like

  35. Axum: They were the first African Kingdom to print coins.
    Meroe: Interesting that they caught and stored rain water in holes up to 20 feet deep.
    Niger River Valley: Iron smelting was the most popular occupation and it was “the key to immense power and immense danger.”
    Bantu: Had 500 African languages and 90 million people spoke them.
    Observation: All of the regions had art as a major aspect in their society. Whether it was pottery or a pyramid, they all had some form of art that they thought highly of.

    Like

  36. Axum- They had an existing social hierarchy which means that kings were higher ranked. This brings me to the point that fascinated me, Ezana constructed a tall stelae monument for the new Axum faith.
    Meroe- The selection of kings was pretty interesting because if you were not a qualified to be a king you would have to take your own life.
    Bantu-I didn’t know that the Bantu transitioned from power based on territorial claim towards seniority power that was based off of kinship groups.
    Niger River- I didn’t know that there wasn’t a social hierarchy but rather several small towns (all which had their own specific jobs/skills) located near a centralized town.
    Observation- I see that almost all cities developed because they adopted agriculture. This lead to many different forms of artistic developments such as Stelae grave tombs in Axum, Meroe Pyramids, and the Bantu with pottery.

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  37. Axum: Political leaders had 4-5 meter tall monoliths for graves and tombs

    Meroe: A major center for goods such as hardwoods and minerals.

    Niger River Region: The boats and maritime knowledge, they could make a boat out of a log.

    Bantu Migration: Images of cattle in the paintings shows how important cows were to there life style.

    A good observation would be that, the desire for artistic values stays consistent in the classical period.

    Gift Olomu

    Like

  38. Axum: I found it interesting that they considered their upper class, the “King of Kings” to be descendants of Solomon, David, and the Queen of Sheba.

    Meroe: The most interesting things to me were that they used iron slags to build their pyramids and also that their pyramids combined elements from Greece, Rome, and Egypt.

    Niger River Region: It was interesting to learn that the people in the Niger region appeared to have practiced ancestor worship and would keep urns containing skeletons in their homes.

    Bantu Migration: One of the fascinating things about the Bantu was that they began the practice of shifting their herds to fresh grazing land.

    Observation: I noticed that art was very important to each of these region’s civilizations, whether in the form of pottery or pyramids. I also noted that the majority of the regions developed iron metallurgy.

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  39. Axum: The fact that the Axum were the first kingdom in Africa to use coins as a currency is interesting because there was one currency that everyone in the kingdom understood on how the process of trade and economics worked.
    Meroe: What was interesting to me was that the Meroe Kings had pyramid tombs where they would be buried. This shows the influence of the Egyptians to the Meroe.
    Niger River Region: The ability of the people living in the Niger River Region to know how to smelt iron amazed me. The people there were able to figure out how to use iron ore and use it to make a useful tool.
    Bantu Migrations: The cave paintings along migration routes were interesting because the Bantu were able to leave behind traces of them being in certain regions of Africa. The cave paintings show the efforts of the migration made by the Bantu.
    Overall, the Sub-Saharan cultures show that the people were well immersed in the understanding of economics because of evidence of it like coin production for the Axum or the massive trade routes for the Niger River region.

    Like

  40. Axum : First African Kingdom to print coins.
    Meroe : That they wrote extensively compared to the other Sub-Saharan African Societies.
    Niger River : They had a caste like system. Like a social hierarchy.
    Bantu : The Bantu have around 500 African languages.
    Observation : The Niger River and Axum societies seemed to have some sort of social stratification while the other two didn’t.

    Like

  41. Axum: I thought it was interesting how their King of Kings was thought to be a descendant of important figures in Christianity.

    Meroe: The people of Meroe used Egyptian hieroglyphs as their written language, and then later developed their own instead of using what was already in place.

    Niger River Valley: Jenne-jeno was not necesarily a city; it was made up of multiple small segments surrounding one large settlement.

    Bantu: The Bantu don’t speak one or a few languages; they speak over 500 of them.

    Observation: All of the ancient Sub-Saharan civilizations have no sort of centralized power or organization; they all seem to have been independent of each other while still functioning as one whole civilization.

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  42. Axum: It’s cool that the Axum people created their own semetic language and their own methods of terracing agriculture.
    Meroe: The Meroe people created pyramids like the ancient Egyptians.
    Niger River: It’s interesting that many cities in the Niger River had specialized in iron smelting.
    Bantu: I find it interesting that the Bantu people were monotheistic, as opposed to polytheistic which many other cultures were at the time.
    Observation: Art was a big deal in every culture (for example, the terracottas made by the Niger River people, or the figures of ancestors made by the Bantu people).

    Like

  43. Most Interesting
    Axum: The existence of printed money in 270 CE
    Meroe: The deciding of who and who will not be king.
    Bantu Migrations: Despite the popularity of polytheism in many parts of the world at the time, the Bantu only worshiped one god.
    Niger River Valley: Most villages did not have elected officials or written language, as they were just extended families with no centralized government.
    Observation: Art and culture seemed to have been very common throughout each civilization.

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  44. Axum- political leaders got 4-5 tall monoliths constructed as elaborate graves

    Meroe- was booming trade center that was full of exotic animals, hardwoods and mineral wealth which Egyptian Pharos & Roman emperors desired.

    Niger RIver- People used canoe-like boats called pirogues to move up and down the river

    Bantu Migration- They left evidence of cave paintings and rock carvings that show/suggest trans-Saharan traffic, possibly due to trade

    These civilizations had a lot of art contributing to cultural and things as well as communication. The main thing in common will all of them was their use of art.

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  45. Axum: Even researching the Axum people I didn’t realize the created sophisticated structures such as storage bins for water and damns. For some reason that never occurred to me.
    Meroe: Much like the Indus River Valley civilization, we cannot decipher their writing.
    Niger River: The Niger people had no central government and instead traveled in small kinship groups much like ancient people or tribes of people.
    Bantu Migrations: Some how they manage to keep a relatively peaceful life with (mentioned) wars even with over 500 languages
    Overall Observation: The groups of Sub Saharan Africa all have had rather developed lives for those compared to what would be expected. They seem to be behind by about 100-200 years in some ways but its nothing that isn’t expected considering how the Africa country limits development.

    Like

  46. Most Interesting
    Axum: Developed their own form of terracing agriculture.
    Meroe: Pyramids were built out of iron slag.
    Niger River Region: Used Canoe like boats called pirogues
    Bantu Migrations: The Bantu traded their iron tips to local hunter gatherer tribes.
    Observation: <Many of the societies seemed to value art and culture along with religious gods or goddesses.

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  47. -Axum: They were the first African Kingdom to print coins under the rule of King Endubis.
    -Meroe: It was interesting how they had giant cisterns to collect rain water at 20 feet deep and 800 feet on diameter.
    -Niger: The spreading of language led to the 30 languages being found along the upper and lower regions of the Nile River.
    -Bantu: The Bantu had estimated of about 500 different African languages.
    -The Sub-Saharan had a very rich culture that each region we are mainly focused on in this unit all shared common similarities.

    Like

  48. Axum: developed Christianity earlier than the Roman Empire.
    Mereo: use cristerns to collect water; I had never heard of this method before.
    Niger River: the terra-cotta statues were an interesting way of showing population density.
    Bantu Migrants: believing there are three generations of ghost and they live among us.
    Observation: Most Sub-Saharan cultures had an interesting type of art to reflect their values and lifestyles.

    Like

  49. Axum: I found it most interesting to see that Axum was the first African Kingdom to use coins as currency under the rule of king Endubis.
    Meroe: The cisterns that the people of Meroe used to collect rain water was very resourceful and useful new technology.
    Niger River Valley: The way that the people living on the Niger River used pirogues to transport themselves along the river was interesting and advanced but so simple at the same time.
    Bantu Migrations: The way that language developed within the Bantu people was because of interaction with other people groups near them, allowing the people to develop a language together and communicate better, which also lead to advancement in trade and the spread of religion.
    Observation: The people of Sub Saharan Africa were very advanced and used their resources and the fact that they were not too isolated from other regions and each other to their advantage. They seemed to have been in contact with each other which helped further trade and cultural diffusion.

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  50. Axum: I found that King Ezana converted to Christianity but it took some time for all of his people to accept the new religion interesting.

    Meroe: Egyptian pharaohs and roman emperors wanted things from Meroe and it was a trading center,.

    Niger River Region: Ancestor worship and the burial urns were interesting about the Niger River Region.

    Bantu Migrations: There are 500 different Bantu languages and over 90 million speakers of those languages.

    Sub-Saharan History: Each region has a significant trade system.

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