Homework: Discussing Fascism

All right, guys– you know the drill.  Today, you need to read Benito Mussolini’s excerpt from The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism.  At the end of the excerpt, you’ll see the following questions:

  1. How did Mussolini view democracy, socialism, and pacifism?
  2. Why would Mussolini’s passionate embrace of heroism and violence appeal to so many Italians (and others) in the 1920s?

Respond to the questions in a comment below– and remember that normal commenting rules apply.  One good comment that fully addresses the questions will receive a 95%, while a comment AND a response can earn up a 100%.

See you tomorrow!

88 thoughts on “Homework: Discussing Fascism

  1. Mussolini saw democracy, socialism, and pacifism as systems that have their virtues, but are weak and ineffective overall. He describes democracy as being run by not one king but multiple which are even more “ruinous”.
    I think that Mussolini’s embrace of heroism and violence might have appealed to so many Italians because it would have portrayed the Italians that died in World War I as quite simply, heros.

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    • I agree because he said that pacifism was an act of cowardice, and democracy and socialism had lack in their systems. He claimed that fascism accepted life and loved it.

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    • I wouldn’t say he thought that Pacifism would result in a weak government, but the fact that both Socialism and pacifism were opposed to the idea of nation-states (while Italy was one) and they opposed nationalism for the idea of national unity.

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      • I mean if you look at what he said about war being able to “bring up to its highest tension all human energy” it seems that he saw Pacifism as something that was not beneficial to a state in anyway. It was a weakness because it doesn’t really promote growth in anyway the Italians were looking for.

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  2. Mussolini believes that pacifism is usually useless in politics, as violence and war are supposedly inevitable for a nation. He also criticizes communism for the amount of credit it gives to the economy in controlling peoples lives, as well as saying democracy was flawed because even a large demographic of people are unfit to run a government.
    Only a few years before the article was written, Europe was embroiled in the most destructive and violent war anyone had seen up to that point. By embracing violence and heroism, Mussolini was appealing to the thousands of World War 1 veterans across Italy and the entirety of Europe.

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    • His argument not only appealed to those World War I veterans, but also to those waiting for a chance at revenge. I mean the veterans weren’t particularly trying to go back to war, despite the ideals and pride that were attached to the job. Many of the veterans were too sick or injured or just didn’t want to encounter any more violence. Therefore, he was probably appealing more to those who hadn’t experienced being a soldier, but had experienced the horrid consequences of war.

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  3. Pacifism believed in peace throughout the world and that violence is not the way to solve things, on the other hand Mussolini promoted violence therefore the idea of pacifism was never accepted by Mussolini. Mussolini sees it as a act of cowardice in the face of sacrifice and war allows for men to put the highest
    stamp of nobility on if they have the courage to meet it. He sees socialism as a way of economic happiness and fascism denies that well being= happiness. He believes that in socialism that the citizens are only mere puppets of the government. Mussolini does not agree with the theological and practical concept of democracy and believes it only gives the citizens an illusion of sovereignty in that the people are controlled by a group of kings .
    I believe many Italians supported Mussolini because a new form of government and the ideas of heroism and violence were something that was new and would be able to help them after the Triple Alliance lost WWI. It also made the military especially look brave in front of the new world powers.

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    • I agree. I think WWI was the reason why Italians embraced heroism and violence, they wanted to make themselves look more powerful to other countries. I would also add that they used violence because they were discontent with what they gained after WWI.

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      • I agree with both statements because promoting violence allows people to believe that you’re not afraid, and if you’re not afraid you’re looked at as a hero. The violence and heroism basically gave the Italians a sense of hope that they had probably lost during the war.

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  4. According to Mussolini democracy, socialism, and pacifism were all weak systems that threatened fascism. He thought that fascism could not reach it’s full potential if those systems were present. He claimed that Pacifism was “an act of cowardice in the face of sacrifice”. Mussolini’s reliance on heroism and violence was accepted by many Italians in the 1920s because they had just gone through World War One and were still living in the aftermath of that war.

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  5. Mussolini viewed democracy socialism and pacifism as weak in comparison to Fascism forms of government. Mussolini says that democracy gives people a sense of false sovereignty when in reality the sovereignty was is controlled irresponsible leaders who take advantage of the people. Mussolini finds Marxian Socialism as irrational. He found that Marxian socialism did not make sense in the ways that change can be made simple through the means of production if people live those way they are dehumanizing themselves by making their source of happiness things and well-being. Mussolini did not agree with that way of living was good for the people. Pacifism to him are cowards, he said that war can bring out the best in people and make their more useful the government and better all together, so being a pacifist would take away this advantage from the government making them cowards. Mussolini’s passionate embrace of heroism and violence appeals to so many Italians because it is unlike anything the Italians have experienced. It appeals to the masses. Fascism gives people the power to be heroes, so during and after World War One when the Italian people were unhappy with their government and the economy they were excited by the ideas of heroism and violence that came with Fascism.

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  6. Mussolini felt that though democracy, socialism and pacifism had their advantages but were overall weak and not a good way to govern people. He felt that socialism was draining on the human soul, turning “men into puppets”, democracy was just a way to have more tyrannical kings and that pacifism was a fancy way of showing cowardice. The real heroes, that show plentiful courage and that are willing to die for their country show so much pride for their country and those displays of nationalistic behavior are what bring the Italians(and other peoples) together.

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    • I agree, through socialism people were told how to live, through democracy they were ruined, and through pacifism they were made cowards. Mussolini’s way definitely grasped the attention of many Italians because it made them heroes and let them actually do things for themselves.

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    • I agree, Mussolini didn’t believe that those other systems of government were efficient and he was threatened by them. I also agree with the statement about socialism and how he thought it turned “men into puppets.”

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    • I completely agree with your reasoning as to why these systems of governing were found to be so cowardice in the eyes of Mussolini.

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  7. Mussolini viewed democracy as a lie because he says it gives people the illusion of sovereignty while the real power is in the hands of other forces. He viewed pacifism as hostile to fascism because it promoted peace without war while fascism believed in sacrifice and heroism. He says that socialism is wrong in that it believes that actions are influenced by economic motives. He also says that the socialist thought of well-being=happiness is false.
    Mussolini’s heroism and violence appealed to so many Italians because of World War 1. The war only ended in 1918 which means it was very recent in that time period. Many Italians had fought in the war or supported the war. The Italians could have also appealed to Mussolini’s heroism and violence because of the unfair treatment Italy received after the war was over at Versailles.

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    • Italy essentially got what they wanted out of the war as they went from a neutral nation to joining the Allies for the promise of regaining lost de jure land although they were indeed cheated out of some of the desired territories. I don’t think the Italian people were driven by support of the war as much as their feeling of not participating enough in it seeing as they started off neutral.

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  8. Mussolini does not believe or like Pacifism because Mussolini used violence often to get his way. Pacifism required non-violence which is something Mussolini would not have recognized. He did not work with Socialism well because it contrasted with Fascism’s doctrine. Mussolini also did not like Democracy because people are, “puppets of the government,” and Fascism denies that the “majority can direct human society.” Italians supported Mussolini the way Germans supported Hitler, they thought he would bring them to glory, and that heroism and violence in war would bring them this glory.

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    • I agree, Mussolini saw the effectiveness of violence and used his political ideas to support it. That is why he disliked pacifism as it stood in the way of his goals.

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  9. Mussolini did not like Pacifism, Socialism, and Democracy because they countered Fascism’s ideals. Pacifism was too peaceful because it was based on world peace. Socialism believes well being = happiness, which contrasted with Fascism. It also denies that the “majority can rule human society,” which is a democratic thing. Italians followed Mussolini because he believed that heroism and violence could raise the morale of the Italians by going into the war, and this caused the Italians to follow him

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  10. Mussolini thought of democracy, socialism, and pacifism as forms of government which lacked strength, and couldn’t properly operate countries that used them. He thought of these forms of government and thoughts as animalistic. He said that fascism challenged the idea that well-being = happiness, changing it so that everyone in the country may attain a max amount of well being together.
    Pacifism turned men into what Mussolini thought of as cowards, since he believed war brought out what people were meant to be like.
    Mussolini was quite plainly using “Heroism” as a means to appeal to those in Italy who recalled the none-to-recent occurrence of WWI, and rallying the veterans who lived the violence readily in their time in the war. Of course, this did not only appeal to Italians, given that everyone had experienced the war, so the ideals of heroism extended to all those that fought in the war.

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  11. Mussolini saw few advantages in the other systems compared to ones like Fascism. It essentially appears as he believes that Democracy, Pacifism, and Communism are doomed to failure in the end. Democracy was ruled by many “tyrants” that will eventually ruin the country, Pacifism is capable of achieving very little as well as being cowardly, and Communism overemphasizes the economy’s role is citizen’s lives.

    Mussolini’s appeal to heroism and violence was similarly like Fascism, it was straightforward and was a simple response to get things done, this also was how many things Mussolini wanted to accomplish had been done historically. The desire for warfare may still have been fresh in the people’s minds as World War I had just recently ended and Italy had not participated as fully as the other countries. Their main fighting consisted of little gain in the Alps against the Austrians until the end of the war, nothing like the brutal field and trench warfare the other fronts endured.

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    • I agree with what you say except for the idea that Mussolini’s Fascist ideals reinstated Italy’s desires about getting involved in war. I don’t think any country would have wanted to have fought in World War I more than they already had because of how bad the causalities were and the economic issues that followed the end of the war.

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      • You make a good point. However, I feel that while it may not have encouraged Italians to go back into warfare, I do think it made them feel better about all of the losses they faced as it was seen as more of a heroic act.

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  12. Mussolini saw democracy, socialism, and pacifism all as systems that were both god and bad, however, he did not agree with them. Pacifism was a system of peace and nonviolence, but Mussolini was all for violence and saw pacifism as cowardice. He saw democracy as having many kings rule rather than just one, and this meant that they were more destructive or “ruinous”. He disagreed with socialism because it completely countered fascism. Socialism saw well being and economic success as equaling happiness, but fascism did not.
    Mussolini’s strong belief in heroism would appeal to Italians because it would identify them as brave if they died fighting for their country rather than just a soldier who died while at war.

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  13. Mussolini felt as though democracy, socialism, and pacifism were all both good and bad. However, he did not agree with any of them. He saw democracy as having multiple kings as opposed to just one and he viewed this as being more “ruinous”. He did not like socialism because it was completely opposite of fascism. Socialism said that economic success and well being equaled happiness, but fascism did not. Pacifism was strict on no violence and all peacefulness. Mussolini disagreed with this very much. He believed that violence was a good thing and that it was needed. His belief in violence helped his belief in heroism. Many Italians followed him because of his belief in heroism; it made those who died at war heroes rather than just someone who died.

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  14. Mussolini views pacifism as useless because every nation will encounter and be involved in wars as it grows. He views democracy as a great evil because it is ruled by many, “…more absolute,tyrannical, and ruinous”. Mussolini also viewed socialism negatively saying that it would, “… reduce men to the level of animals”. However, Mussolini’s heroism and violence could be very appealing because it emphasized nationalism and was very appealing to Italians and gave them a sense for hope.

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  15. Mussolini believes that Pacifism is kind of useless, not believing in the possibility and utility and of perpetual peace. Mussolini appears to be more leaning towards Fascism saying it is a major step towards living in a worth while community and considers it infallible and does not allow it’s self to be temporarily deceived. For Democracy Mussolini says that Democracy is usually held in the hands of the irresponsible.
    This would probably appeal to so many people because he is appealing to there sensation of pride and the need to defend the “better” government like how The United States say they have to defend and spread Democracy.

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    • I agree with your idea on how Mussolini felt about Pacifism. He believed it did not appeal to the doctrines of Fascism and peace was hard to come by. During the 1920s, the doctrines of Pacifism appealed to few numbers in the population of Europe. Every country had its own nationalism, and the men would fight in the war of 1914 and females would support the state by working in the factories when the men went to fight.

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  16. Mussolini thought democracy was a poor form of government because he thought that a large group of diverse people were unfit to run the government. He believed that socialism gave too much power to the economy, and that because violence and war are bound to happen to a country, pacifism was pointless.
    Many Italians were drawn to Mussolini’s passionate embrace of heroism and violence because of World War I. A number of citizens would have just fought in the war, and Italians were unhappy with the poor treatment they were receiving as a result of the Treaty of Versailles.

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    • I agree with you in that Mussolini could not see the purpose of pacifism. You opened my eyes to the factors of World War I and the Treaty of Versailles in how people embraced Mussolini’s beliefs.

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  17. Mussolini felt that Fascism was threatened by democracy, socialism, and pacifism. He viewed democracy as a form of government that was ran by kings and that gave people the “illusion of sovereignty,” meaning that sovereignty was not a true concept of democracy. Socialism in his eyes was “the materialist conception of history.” Socialism values happiness, but Fascism does not. Mussolini’s idea of Pacifism is the lacking of bravery and the rejection of struggle. He believed that these three ideologies were weak, yet posed a threat to Fascist beliefs.
    Mussolini’s passionate embrace of heroism and violence appealed to so many Italians and others in the 1920s because he described it in a way that sprouts a nationalistic spirit. He described it as “a new way of life for Italy,” which appealed to the people, giving hope and a sense of unity.

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    • I agree. Mussolini’s speech did seem like a call to action for the people of Italy and the way he addressed the idea of fighting for nobility and honor had a nationalistic kind of feel to it.

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    • I agree with your point that Mussolini’s heroism and violence appealed Italians because it served as a form of nationalism. Mussolini states that actions influenced by no economic motive, direct, or indirect as a form of fascism. The sense of nationalism helped unify Italy during the 1920’s.

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  18. Mussolini saw democracy, socialism, and pacifism are decent forms of government but they aren’t are as good as fascism. He sees them as weak compared to the strength that fascism gives. He thought that any thing that had other idea’s than fascism was not as good as it, but he did see their benefits. His idea’s on violence and heroism were that they were important and he valued them a lot. this appealed to the people who had participated in WWI and had see these things.

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  19. Mussolini did not think that democracy, socialism, or pacifism were acceptable ways for a country to be run. He believed that democracy was not really “ruled by the people” but rather people being ruled by multiple kings instead of just one. He believes that humans are naturally unequal and that universal suffrage cannot change that, so rule by the majority is not a good thing. Mussolini also vehemently dislikes socialism and says that fascism is the complete opposite of socialism because fascism does not believe in the combining efforts of society in the way that socialism does. Additionally, he disagrees with the idea that history has been shaped by class struggle. Mussolini does not like pacifism because he believes that it is for the weak. He views war and fighting for one’s country as noble, which is the opposite of pacifism. The heroism and violence of fascism in the 1920s probably appealed to Italians because it gave the recently worn torn people a reason for World War One. Basically, it allowed them to say, “I might not have liked fighting in the war, but at least I know that it was a heroic thing to do”. Additionally, it allowed people to think that they were better than other countries, which they might have wanted to feel since they did not get much from the Treaty of Versailles.

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    • I agree that Mussolini strongly disagreed with pacifism and socialism, where both of these two systems had completely different characteristics to that of Fascism. I like how you included Mussolini idea on class struggle as an addition to your argument.

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  20. Mussolini viewed democracy, socialism, and pacifism as flawed systems that stand against fascism. Pacifism opposed his fascist view of heroism and violence and democracy opposed the fascist authoritarian way of rule. Socialism supports the ideal of “economic happiness” while fascism does not.
    The Italians felt appeal to violence and heroism because they felt that after WWI they had been cheated out of territory and rewards from supporting the allies and that resentment made what Mussolini was saying more appealing.

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    • I agree with your point that Mussolini did not agree with socialism because it supported “economic happiness”. This is especially shown when he says that “Fascism denies the validity of the equation, well being=happiness”. To me this seems like Mussolini is not only talking about economic prosperity, but also standard of living and related ideas.

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  21. Mussolini viewed pacifism, democracy, and socialism from a mostly negative perspective. He viewed Pacifism as an embarrassment to becoming noble and courageous. Mussolini feels it does not let men make the big decision of facing life or death. Although Mussolini does not hate the idea of socialism, he just finds it pointless because it supports a strong belief in discoveries and economic inventions to explain all of history. This entire idea contradicts Mussolini’s Fascist ideologies. Lastly, Mussolini disagrees with democracy because he does not think the majority of the people in a government system can make all the great decisions needed to be made.

    Mussolini’s passionate embrace of heroism and violence was so appealing to Italians because it gave Italy more hope in the government after the issues in the first World War and because the people saw Fascism as a way to make their country stronger and more powerful.

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  22. Mussolini believed that Pacifism was full of cowards, and that war was necessary to “bring up the highest tension of all human energy”, which was what Pacifism lacked.
    He did not agree with socialism because it was too focused on the economy, it was too materialistic, and he stated that well being did not equal happiness and that democracy was ruled by too many people.
    His beliefs were so embraced because like many Italians it gave them “a new way of life” after all the conflicts that had been going on.

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  23. Mussolini believed that Fascism had its own doctrine and he completely rejects the other doctrines like democracy, socialism, and Pacifism. He believes that the doctrines of Pacifism did not fit together very well because Pacifism was all about preserving the peace while the doctrines of Fascism believed in holiness and heroism. Fascist could use means of violence to achieve its goals. An example is Mussolini’s black shirts, an organization that used intense violence to eliminate Mussolini’s political opponents. Mussolini also viewed socialism and democracy as completely different doctrines compared to Fascism. Socialism believed in the happiness of the class however Fascism reject the idea of happiness. Democracy was favored in the hands of the people however in fascism, the government was the body of organization to control the rights of the people. So obviously, these doctrines are unlike the ideas of Fascism.
    I believe many Italians favored the idea of heroism and violence is because of a strong sense of nationalism. Maybe they believed, fascism would be the tool to unite all of Italy and its people. People saw the effects of WWI, leaving many countries weak and on the verge of bankruptcy. So Italians knew Mussolini could bring Italy to become a world power and compete against Great Britain, France, and Germany.

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  24. Mussolini thought that democracy gave the people the illusion of sovereignty, and was actually more tyrannical than the rule of one king. He believed the real power lied in the hands of irresponsible forces. Mussolini saw socialism as an absurd delusion. He did not believe that actions should be influenced by economic motives. Benito felt pacificism was an act of cowardice. According to him, war, in general, put the “stamp if nobility” on people.

    Mussolini’s embrace of heroism and violence appealed to Italians because they resented the fact that they gained little territory in World War I. Many veterans felt deserted by society and were ready for action, and when people began to think that the leadership in Italy was ineffective, they were close to getting there chance.

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  25. Mussolini’s described that in democracy the men in charge are “puppets”. The power of a democracy would essentially be coming from people who are influential to the government. For socialism, Mussolini described that happiness gained from the well being of citizens was not how people should be. He believed that men who followed socialism were animals because the men would only care about making sure they were living a luxury life. For pacifism, Mussolini described that there was no need for the concept of no violence. Mussolini viewed pacifism as “cowardice”.He was against non violence since he used violence to gain power.
    Mussolini embrace of heroism and violence had appealed to the majority of soldiers who fought in WWI. War veterans returning to Italy had the view that going to war was about the glory of going into a battle. This would give soldiers a nationalistic view on themselves because soldiers had gone to war for Italy and felt that Mussolini embracing heroism and violence was a way to unite the soldiers and even the citizens of Italy.

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  26. Mussolini thought that democracy gave the people the illusion of sovereignty, and was actually more tyrannical than the rule of one king. He believed the real power lied in the hands of irresponsible forces. Mussolini saw socialism as an absurd delusion. He did not believe that actions should be influenced by economic motives. Benito felt pacificism was an act of cowardice. According to him, war, in general, put the “stamp if nobility” on people.

    Mussolini’s embrace of heroism and violence appealed to Italians because they resented the fact that they gained little territory in World War I. Many veterans felt deserted by society and were ready for action, and when people began to think that the leadership in Italy was ineffective, they were close to getting their chance.

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  27. Mussolini saw democracy to result in a weak government that couldn’t govern efficiently or properly. He thought that in socialism, the government had too strong of a grip on citizens and the people were controlled by gov. powers. While in pacificism the teaches are of peace while Mussolini appeared to want violence in political affairs. I believe that mussolini was of violence and this would appeal to Italians because of the issues they were faced with due to the war and its effects. As these things affected the lives of those in the war, and the social/economic status of those who weren’t. Violence may have seemed like the perfect way for revenge on those other regions who had done Italy wrong.

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  28. Mussolini saw democracy to result in a weak government that couldn’t govern efficiently or properly. He thought that in socialism, the government had too strong of a grip on citizens and the people were controlled by gov. powers. While in pacificism the teaches are of peace while Mussolini appeared to want violence in political affairs. I believe that mussolini was of violence and this would appeal to Italians because of the issues they were faced with due to the war and its effects. As these things affected the lives of those in the war, and the social/economic status of those who weren’t. Violence may have seemed like the perfect way for revenge on those other regions who had done Italy wrong.

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  29. Mussolini viewed pacifism as an act born out of cowardliness because Mussolini viewed war as the ultimate trial of courage, and thus if you turn away from war then you must not be encourages. Mussolini felt that Marxian Socialism was preposterous and absurd because he does not believe that human civilization can be explained solely through alterations in the production of materials and social conflicts. instead Mussolini felt that social conflicts do not define society, and that holiness and heroism do. Also he does not believe in the socialist belief that everyone will be happy if they are well-off, instead he believes that this belief will reduce humans to the intelligence level of animals because all animals desire is to be well fed and that translates to being well of to humans. Mussolini also completely denies the fact that the majority of people could possibly rule a government, and thus he completely denounces democracy. The reason why I think Mussolini’s approach to heroism and violence was so readily accepted by Italians is because World War One had just ended and everybody knew of, or was somebody who had fought in the war. Also everybody was still feeling the impacts of the war along with the Great Depression. Many former soldiers were unemployed, and this approach to heroism and war gave them something to be proud about in a time in their lived when there wasn’t much to be proud of. Men who had fought in the war were able to say that they had courageously fought in it and thus were a hero by Mussolini’s standards, and they were praised for having fought in the war. It also justified the violence that they had committed during the war because they were proving that they were courageous. That is why Mussolini’s view of violence and heroism were easily accepted in Italy during the 1920s.

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  30. 1. Mussolini viewed pacifism as futile, saying, “Thus a doctrine founded upon the harmful postulate of peace is hostile towards fascism.” He viewed pacifism as weak and cowardly, which is the opposite of what a fascist should be. Mussolini states that socialism is opposite to fascism as well, believing that the advancement of humanity being based on personal gain is absurd. Actions not based on “economic motives” are important to fascists. Finally, a fascist believes that democracy gives a false sense of sovereignty, and that a majority does not have the rights to make decisions simply because it is more numerous. Fascism, according to Mussolini, represents the evolution of a country’s ideals, not the evolution of its leaders.

    2. Heroism and violence would appeal to Italians in the 1920s due to the multiple conflicts, including World War I, that had been occurring in Europe at the time. Mussolini gave a greater meaning to all of the violence, and justified it, all while promoting his system of political rule.

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  31. Mussolini viewed Pacifism as an struggle and an act of cowardice. Mussolini believed that Fascism did not accept the idea of “economic” happiness, for that reason Mussolini viewed socialism in a negative way. Mussolini states that the democracy regime gives people the illusion of sovereignty. Mussolini also believed that democracy is not ruled by one king but many kings. Mussolini did not believe in the ideas of democracy, socialism, and pacifism, Mussolini believed that all of these had major problems. Mussolini appealed so many Italians because Italy was in an economic crisis during the 1920’s. Mussolini embraced violence, this would appeal so many Italians because it would show that Italy was powerful.

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  32. Mussolini believed that Fascism belief and doctrines made socialism, democracy, and pacifism doctrines and beliefs irrelevant. He was completely again the whole idea of pacifism. He thought that socialism was just an aspiration that no one would ever truly go and fight for and that democracy was a system that was ruled not by a king or tyrant, but many kings or tyrants, therefore it was lots of trouble. Mussolini’s passionate embrace of violence and heroism appealed to so many Italians because, as he stated, civilians believe what they see and follow what they hear. If someone of high authority is telling them that something is right, as wrong as it may be, they too will think that this thing is the right thing to do. People also belied that Fascism would give them a new, united way of life that would bring everyone together and it would make life so easy. They wanted to take the easy way out and that was the easiest way.

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    • I agree with Stephanie, the other systems of governing, although threatening to fascism, showed weakness. This pulled people more towards fascism which was a very authoritarian and right-wing way of thinking.

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  33. Mussolini viewed pacifism as a doctrine that was struggling and was an act of cowardice. He viewed socialism as outdated and unrealistic. Mussolini viewed democracy as a doctrine that represents an illusion of sovereignty and stated that democracy gave power to the majority and that was wrong in the fascist doctrine. Mussolini also stated that democracy was a reign of many kings since the majority was ruled by leader after leader.
    Mussolini’s passionate embrace of heroism and violence appealed to many Italians at the time because the doctrine of fascism gave many promises and organized and unified the country. Mussolini also inspired his people because so many Italians wanted to do better than they did in World War I.

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  34. Mussolini thought that a democracy was a weak government. He thought that it was a system not ruled by one king or tyrant, but many kings or tyrants. That sounded weak and troubled to him. He thought that socialism was a pointless concept because what it was trying to reach was pointless and not important. That it was nothing more than an aspiration. He thought pacifism was a weak and cowardly system when it came to sacrifice. Mussolini’s embrace of violence and heroism was appealing to many Italians because they thought Fascism was the way to unite their country. They thought it was something that could bring them back to the way their nation was before all the conflict from World War 1. They wanted an easy way to get back to normal, and this was it.

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    • I agree with Stephanie. Mussolini also thought that socialism would make society similar to animal populations and create a physical existence rather than a unique human experience. He also believed that the goals of pacifism and enduring peace could never be accomplished.

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  35. Mussolini viewed Fascism was different from democracy, socialism, and pacifism because socialism essentially changes society into a merely physical survival state. He argues that even though democracy has no king, kings still arise through other means and hold power. He believes that pacifism, and enduring peace can never be achieved.

    Mussolini’s embrace of violence and heroism would appeal to 1920 Italians because Italy was a part of the Allied powers, who defeated the Central Powers in WWI and war veterans, along with those who supported the war effort on the home front were seen as “heroes”.

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  36. Mussolini views democracy, socialism, and pacifism and weak, inefficient ways of governing. According to Mussolini, these types of governments are not bad per say, just different and contradictory to the fascist beliefs. Fascists such as Mussolini believed heroism and violence, which can very much contradict the ideals of democracy, socialism, and pacifism. The idea of peace that is shared within these systems gives people the choice between life or death, but fascists believe that there shouldn’t be a choice. Mussolini’s passionate embrace of heroism and violence appealed to many people, especially the Italians, during the 1920s because nationalistic views were high. The idea of fighting for one’s country in the time of crisis, especially after World War I, was very enticing. Mussolini justified the violence many people felt was needed. His fascist ideals gave people an outlet for their grief and violent desires.

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  37. Mussolini become the leader of the Italian Fascist movement and his policies are the thing that propelled him to the head of the Italian state. Mussolini’s views on the outside world especially after the Treaty of Versailles essentially duped the Italians after the massive cost of the war. This lead to revolts and the Mussolini’s views on strong nationalism and fascism became extremely attractive to the struggling people of the Italy. Mussolini saw democracy, socialism, Marxism, communism and pacifism as weak ideals that cannot truly support the people of any society or strong nation. Socialism was supposed to use ways of managing that would result in weak leaders and cowardliness. Democracy was even worse as a group of politicians tried to run a country becoming more corrupt that one king alone. Communism and Marx-communism was just unrealistic to believe that the economy and government could be run by the people themselves. Much like Hitler rallied the people of Germany after WWI, by playing understanding the struggle that his people endure Mussolini understood the same thing and want his people wanted and this rhetoric was exactly the right things that the people need to hear.

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  38. Mussolini viewed pacifism as a cowardice act and democracy as a weak government. He thought democracy gave power to the majority and he didn’t like that. He thought socialism was stupid and delusional and thought that you shouldn’t base your actions on economic motives.

    Heroism and violence appealed to a lot of Italians because they were economically in rough shape after WWI and fascism was a way for them to come together and unite again. Violence also helped bring them together because they were angry about WWI because they did not get any territory and they weren’t recognized fro what they did.

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  39. Mussolini viewed democracy, socialism, and pacifism as weak systems that hurt the idea of fascism. I think Mussolini’s passionate embrace of heroism and violence appeal to so many Italians because it made eveyone a hero who died.

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  40. Mussolini viewed democracy, socialism, and pacifism as weak and flawed systems when compared to fascism. Democracy was a flawed and weak system in that rule of power was controlled through multiple rulers and says that the democratic ideology of allowing ruling power in the hands of many kings was a wrong idea. Pacifism believed in non-violence acts and was rejected by Mussolini because his idea revolved around heroism and pacifism’s’ ideology is completely opposite to that of his own. Socialism was also another weak system because he felt that the concept of economic happiness was not related to the well-being of an individual. Mussolini’s idea of fascism appealed to many people of Italy in 1920’s because it was a different and distinctive social organization that offered nationalism and heroism for Italians.

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    • I agree with your opinion on the distinctive socialist representation of Italians because Benito Mussolini was very passionate about his own county and what he believed that they should’ve believed in at the current time.

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  41. Mussolini feels as if Fascism is the best type of government because it promotes violence that is inevitable and it has one absolute leader making it weak. Which is better than democracy because having multiple leaders makes the government weak. Mussolini made dying in battle seem like an honor and these was what the Italians like because they had just got out of the war and many of their family members or people they knew died and were now deemed heroes and kind of put on a pestle. He also thought it was best to fight violence with violence and not try to solve things peacefully.

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  42. I feel Mussolini did not like the ideas of democracy socialism and pacifism because they all hurt the outstanding rights of Fascism. Because of these other forms of government Fascism was looked down upon in comparison which Mussolini did not like. Mussolini’s violence and heroism outlook by the people was embraced because of WWI and the Italian people were broke and looking for a strong leader to pull them out of this world wide depression and bring/ restore Italy to a world power.

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  43. Pacifism promoted and believed in peace in the world without violence as solution. And because Benito Mussolini believed and promote violence so the aspect of pacifism was never useful to him. Along with that he criticizes that socialism is an economic happiness and because fascism does not have that happiness. And Mussolini citizens that under socialism are merely puppets for the government. Along with that Mussolini does not agree with the concept of democracy because it place an illusion of sovereignty to the citizens in that the people are controlled by a group of kings.
    Because Mussolini believed in violence and heroism; he was supported or were appealing to World War 1 veterans in throughout Italy and the majority of Europe. And because the Triple Alliance lost World War 1; it made the military look braver in front of the new world powers.

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  44. Benito Mussolini viewed democracy, socialism, and pacifism as a cowardly and less effective way of governing a country because these governmental systems seem afraid of war and violence. Fascism was an effective way to handle your countries problems. He believed it was an effective and honorable way for men to die being this way of governing expressed passion, heroism, and bravery towards other countries. To him, this was intimidating in a way. This way of governing was violent, but effective and represented a country well.

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  45. 1. Mussolini viewed pacifism as the opposite of a doctrine as well as a system that destroyed civilizations instead of bringing them together. He viewed socialism as a cowardly system of government, and democracy as ineffective because he was not in accordance with giving the power to the people. In general, Mussolini considered these three systems to be weak and ineffective.
    2. Passionate embrace of heroism and violence appealed to many Italians during the 1920s because they had just gone through WWI and were economically devastated, violence would show other countries that Italy was strong and powerful. Also, they were not content with the amount of land they gained from WWI, the considered violence a way to make up for that.

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    • I do agree with most of what you say here. However, I do not think that Mussolini saw socialism as cowardly. He viewed pacifism as cowardly because it ignored the fact that there was a struggle and did not take into account the sacrifices at hand. He more saw socialism as an idea that was not back by any sort of scientific truth. Mussolini believed that the points Marx makes about class struggle and the changing of society was completely ridiculous. He also denounces the idea of “economic happiness” that was a key point in socialism.

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  46. Mussolini sees democracy, socialism, and pacifism as sloppy seconds to Fascism, each with their own issues and concerns. Democracy, according to him, was not true freedom but the people being controlled by a group of kings (like an oligarchy). In socialism, he believed people were not allocated choice and were simply there to do the government’s bidding. Pacifism was seen as an act of cowardice, as he saw much glory in service to one’s nation. Italians would have favored this post World War 1 political view for many reasons. Mussolini’s encouragement of violence and warfare convinced many Italians that the deaths in World War 1 were not a tragedy, but more of an honor. The people who died in battle were seen as heroes, and this fell into the good graces of Italians.

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  47. To Mussolini Democracy was a weak form of government and did not think it was a efficient way to rule. He did not agree with socialism because it supported economic happiness while Fascism didn’t. When it came to political affairs Mussolini seemed to have wanted violence in them but Pacifism teaches peace.
    Mussolini passionate embrace of heroism and violence appealed to the Italian veterans from World War 1 and it made them believe that going into battle was a thing of glory. It even united the citizens of Italy.

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  48. Mussolini was not very fond of the ideas od democracy, socialism, and pacifism. He believed there wasn’t really a democracy and people were not really free at all, it just tricked people into thinking that. He believed socialism was an ineffective ideal and did not need to involve the economy. He though pacifism was an act of cowardliness because he took pride and glory in war.
    After WW1, Italians had nothing striving for them economically , so the heroism and embrace of violence gave the Italians something to “hold on to”.

    Gift Olomu

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  49. Mussolini felt that democracy had its valid qualities, socialism was futile, and pacifism was cowardly. Mussolini thought of democracy not as the voice of the people, but as the rule of many kings, which is blatantly wrong. He thought that socialism is the antithesis of fascism because it emphasized the participation and efforts of society to create a perfect state, which was almost a correct interpretation of the socialist ideology. He sees pacifism as cowardice, which conflicts with his “eager to murder” attitude that turns Boyz 2 Men.
    Mussolini’s grim approach to government and happiness appealed to many Italians because of its promise of heroism and power, which made war seem noble again and could have even caught the attention of the remaining imperialistic little Romans in every Italian’s heart. The Italians wanted their territory back, and the first World War drained their economies to the point of desperation. Maybe fascism seemed like a great alternative to the apparently detrimental capitalism and socialism at the time, as long as it feeds my family.

    I̶ ̶g̶o̶t̶t̶a̶ ̶p̶u̶t̶-̶a̶ ̶d̶a̶ ̶p̶i̶z̶z̶a̶-̶a̶ ̶a̶n̶d̶ ̶a̶ ̶s̶p̶i̶c̶y̶-̶a̶-̶m̶e̶a̶t̶ ̶b̶a̶l̶l̶ ̶o̶n̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶ ̶t̶a̶b̶l̶e̶-̶a̶.̶

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  50. 1. Mussolini believed that the true way to rule a country was through fascism and that pacifism, socialism, and democracy were terrible ways to do this. He looked down on pacifism because he saw it as weak and cowardly. Mussolini thought that pacifism ignored the fact that there was a conflict and he viewed peace as detrimental and hostile to fascism. Mussolini looked down on socialism because he did not believe that there was any scientific truth backing Marx’s arguments about class struggle and the history of economic changes. He thought that while changes and discoveries in the economic field were significant, the idea that they were the basis of human history was ridiculous. Mussolini denied that class struggle played the dominant role in the changing of a society and ultimately believed that socialism was just some aspiration. Finally, Mussolini did not like democracy because he did not believe that people should be ruled by the majority just because it was the majority. He also believed that through democracy, the people were ruled by multiple kings and that they only had what they thought was freedom but instead the rulers had all freedoms.

    2. Mussolini’s admiration of heroism would have appealed to many Italians at that time because it would have given them a reason behind why they did go to war. Those who fought in WWI would have also felt like they were finally getting the recognition they deserved and they could tell themselves that it was worth it.

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